The Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway (TH&B) existed from 1892 through 1987 as a separate railway serving the Hamilton, Ontario area. It joined the lines of its corporate parents, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the New York Central. It was established largely as an alternate route for the businesses in the Hamilton area to ship their products to Canadian customers in Toronto, Montreal, and the west and to American customers via the New York Central and its subsidiaries. The railway also owned a subsidiary company to operate a rail ferry between Ashtabula, Ohio and Port Maitland, Ontario. The TH&B Navigation Company was chartered in 1916 and operated the Maitland No. 1 until 1932.
The TH&B was jointly owned after July 1895 by the CPR and NYC (and its successor, Penn Central) until 1977, when CP Rail bought the remaining shares and became full owner of the railway. The TH&B was integrated into the operations of its parent in 1987, losing its distinct identity as a separate railway.